Skip to main content

Ecology and Conservation

Dr Kimberley Hockings

Dr Kimberley Hockings

Senior Lecturer in Conservation Science

 Stella Turk Building B051-011


University of Exeter, Penryn Campus, Penryn, TR10 9FE


The main objective of my research is to elucidate the underlying mechanisms that enable human-wildlife coexistence. I have a particular interest in the drivers of resource competition, disease transmission, and aggressive interactions between human and nonhuman great apes in shared landscapes. Comprehensively examining interactions requires an understanding of the ways in which wildlife respond to the costs and benefits of anthropogenic habitats, and how local people perceive and respond to sympatric wildlife, as well as land and resource management rules. To do this effectively demands a cross-disciplinary skills base, and my research increasingly combines biological, ecological, and social science approaches. A goal of my research is to work with different stakeholders to generate locally appropriate and culturally sensitive solutions to biodiversity conservation.

I ensure that my work has real-world impact through (1) using scientific evidence to inform conservation action; (2) developing National and Regional conservation action plans; (3) collaborating with Government Organisations in the countries I work, and (4) influencing policy through active membership of professional conservation bodies including the Great Ape Section of the IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group.

I conduct fieldwork in West Africa, including research on wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) at Bossou in Guinea, and various wildlife species including chimpanzees and colobus monkeys (Piliocolobus temminckii) at Cantanhez National Park in Guinea-Bissau. I supervise students working on human-great ape interactions across Africa, and have supervised dissertations on various aspects of wildlife behaviour and conservation across Africa, Asia, and the Neotropics. I am a member of the IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group (PSG) Section on Great Apes (SGA); COVID-19 working group; Section on Chimpanzee Culture and Conservation; Section on Human-Primate Interactions, and the Conservation Working Party of the Primate Society of Great Britain.

Broad research specialisms:

Human-wildlife coexistence
Great ape behaviour, ecology, and cognition
Primate conservation


2019  Fellow of the Higher Education Academy (FHEA)

2007  Ph.D. in Evolutionary Psychology, University of Stirling, UK

2002  B.Sc .(Hon.) in Zoology, University of Liverpool, UK


2021- Programme Lead for MSc Conservation and Biodiversity:

2019-   Senior Lecturer in Conservation Science, University of Exeter, UK

2018-2019 Lecturer in Biosciences, University of Exeter, UK

2015-2018 University Research Fellow (FCT), Centre for Research in Anthropology (CRIA-FCSH/NOVA), Portugal     

2013-2014 Postdoctoral Research Fellow, Oxford Brookes University, UK         

2010 Visiting Postdoctoral Research Fellow, Kyoto University, Japan

2008-2012 Postdoctoral Research Fellow (FCT), New University of Lisbon, Portugal


Research group links

Back to top


Research interests

My interests in Animal Behaviour and Conservation Science are broad, and I am currently conducting research in four diverse, but interlinked, areas: (1) human-wildlife interactions and applied animal conservation, (2) primate behavioural flexibility and cognition in anthropogenic habitats, (3) great ape tool-use and material culture, and (4) wildlife use of ethanol.

Human-wildlife interactions

In my approach to studying theoretical and applied aspects of human-wildlife interactions, I combine social science methods with an understanding of how animals perceive, and respond to, anthropogenic environments at a local- and landscape-level. I conduct research on resource competition (crops, wild foods, space), disease transmission, and aggressive interactions between sympatric humans and chimpanzees across equatorial Africa. I am interested in the influence of anthropogenic factors on wildlife presence and distribution in human-impacted landscapes, and how human perceptions about wildlife impact tolerance levels towards sympatric and sometimes problematic species. A goal of my research is to work with different stakeholders to build capacity and generate locally appropriate and transparent solutions for biodiversity conservation in an effort to reduce conservation conflicts.

Primate behavioural flexibility in anthropogenic habitats

I am interested in the physical, behavioural, and cognitive characteristics of primates and other wildlife that allow them to persist in proximity to people. I am particularly passionate about exploring the ways in which primate responses to fast-changing anthropogenic landscapes, with shrinking forested areas and more mosaic habitats, provide a contemporary situation for understanding evolutionary aspects of their cognition and flexibility. I am also keen to consider ways in which understanding animal behaviour and cognition in the wild can assist in conservation efforts, for example, through increasing animal perception of risk when exploiting human parts of the environment such as roads and plantations.

Great ape tool-use and material culture

Knowledge about nonhuman great ape behaviour, cognitive capacities, and technology is important to shed light on human behaviour, our evolutionary history, and on the evolutionary origins of the earliest human technology. We are currently exploring the tool-use repertoire and ecological drivers of technological and behavioural variation of chimpanzee populations in forest and savanna habitats in Guinea-Bissau. As these sites are impacted by humans in different ways, I am particularly interested in how great ape material culture is changing in response to human presence and activities.

Wildlife use of ethanol

Ethanol is naturally consumed by a variety of taxa, from invertebrates to vertebrates, including mammals. I am interested in the evolutionary origins of ethanol consumption in humans, and although there are numerous anecdotes about wild primates ingesting ethanol, almost all remain non-validated. In collaboration with colleagues from the USA, we combine paleogenetics and ecological research to test hypotheses about the evolutionary origins of primate ethanol consumption through resurrecting key components of the ethanol metabolizing pathway in our distant ancestors, and applying scientific rigor to investigate the ethanol content of food in primate habitat and the consumption patterns of these foods.

Research networks

Member: The Bossou and Nimba International Research Team, Guinea & Japan

Member: The Centre for Research in Anthropology, Portugal

International Collaborator: The Leading Graduate Program in Primatology and Wildlife Science, Kyoto University, Japan

International Collaborator: The Institute for Biodiversity and Protected Areas (IBAP), Guinea-Bissau

Long-term collaborators:
Dr Dora Biro:
Dr Matthew Carrigan:
Dr Susana Carvalho:
Prof Amélia Frazão Moreira:
Prof Catherine Hill:
Prof Tetsuro Matsuzawa:
Dr Matthew McLennan:


2024 Darwin Initiative grant for “Fostering human-wildlife coexistence in a biodiversity hotspot in southern Guinea-Bissau”. Principal Investigator – £551,280.

2021 Darwin Challenge Fund: COVID-19 Rapid Response Round "Reducing transmission of SARS-COV-2 to African great apes in tourism", Principal Investigator – £58,852.

2019-2022  Darwin Initiative grant for “Promoting public health in a biodiverse agroforest landscape in Guinea-Bissau”, Principal Investigator – £325,043.

2019-2023  NERC GW4+ PhD studentship (Apes on the edge: assessing human impacts on the health and socioecology of critically-endangered western chimpanzees).

2018  Halpin Trust for “Great Ape Health in Cantanhez National Park, Guinea-Bissau”, Principal Investigator – £39,208.

2018  British Academy Conference Grant (with Robin Dunbar) for “Alcohol and Humans: A Long and Social Affair”.

2016-2018  ARCUS great ape conservation grant for “Promoting Chimpanzee Conservation in Guinea-Bissau, West Africa” – US$50,000.

2015-2017  Mohammed Bin Zayed Conservation Fund (with Hellen Bersacola) for “Seeking people-primate coexistence: Endangered primate responses to anthropogenic activities and land transformation in Guinea-Bissau, West Africa” – US$12,000.

2015  Fundaçao de Ciencia e Technologia (FCT) Research grant “Landscapes of risk: a cross-disciplinary approach to examine the sustainability of human-chimpanzee coexistence”, Principal Investigator – €49,950

2015-2016  FCT Research grant “Chimpanzee tool-use in Guinea-Bissau and behavioural complexity”, Principal Investigator – €49,873

2012-2014  FCT Research grant “Where humans and chimpanzees meet: assessing sympatry throughout Africa using a multi-tiered approach”, Principal Investigator – €110,000

2013, 2016  Santander Internationalisation Award for Scientific Production

2010  Japanese Society for the Promotion of Science, Japan. Research Fellowship – US$2500

2009  Conservation International, USA. Research grant - US$4500

2004  International Team for Bossou-Nimba Research, Kyoto University, Japan: MEXT and JSPS-Hope, Japan, awarded by T Matsuzawa for fieldwork costs – £15000.

2003-2007  University of Stirling, UK. Full PhD studentship


Back to top



Hockings K, Dunbar R (2020). Alcohol and Humans a Long and Social Affair., Oxford University Press, USA. Abstract.
Wessling E, Humle T, Heinicke S, Hockings K, Byler D, Williamson E (2020). Regional action plan for the conservation of western chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) 2020–2030. Gland, Switzerland, IUCN.

Journal articles

Eppley TM, Reuter KE, Sefczek TM, Tinsman J, Santini L, Hoeks S, Andriantsaralaza S, Shanee S, Fiore AD, Setchell JM, et al (2024). Tropical field stations yield high conservation return on investment. Conservation Letters, 17(2). Abstract.
Carter H, Glaudas X, Whitaker R, Chandrasekharun G, Hockings K, Nuno A (2024). Venomous snakebites: Exploring social barriers and opportunities for the adoption of prevention measures. Conservation Science and Practice, 6(2). Abstract.
Meijaard E, Unus N, Ariffin T, Dennis R, Ancrenaz M, Wich S, Wunder S, Goh CS, Sherman J, Ogwu MC, et al (2023). Apes and agriculture. Frontiers in Conservation Science, 4 Abstract.
Casorso JG, DePasquale AN, Morales SR, Hernandez SC, Navarro RL, Hockings KJ, Carrigan MA, Melin AD (2023). Seed dispersal syndrome predicts ethanol concentration of fruits in a tropical dry forest. Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 290(2003).
Bersacola E, Hill CM, Nijman V, Hockings KJ (2022). Examining primate community occurrence patterns in agroforest landscapes using arboreal and terrestrial camera traps. Landscape Ecology, 37(12), 3103-3121.
Estrada A, Garber PA, Gouveia S, Fernández-Llamazares Á, Ascensão F, Fuentes A, Garnett ST, Shaffer C, Bicca-Marques J, Fa JE, et al (2022). Global importance of Indigenous Peoples, their lands, and knowledge systems for saving the world's primates from extinction. Sci Adv, 8(32). Abstract.  Author URL.
Bessa J, Biro D, Hockings K (2022). Inter-community behavioural variation confirmed through indirect methods in four neighbouring chimpanzee communities in Cantanhez NP, Guinea-Bissau. R Soc Open Sci, 9(2). Abstract.  Author URL.
Nuno A, Chesney C, Wellbelove M, Bersacola E, Kalema‐Zikusoka G, Leendertz F, Webber AD, Hockings KJ (2022). Protecting great apes from disease: Compliance with measures to reduce anthroponotic disease transmission. People and Nature, 4(5), 1387-1400. Abstract.
Satsias ZM, Silk MJ, Hockings KJ, Cibot M, Rohen J, McLennan MR (2022). Sex-specific responses to anthropogenic risk shape wild chimpanzee social networks in a human-impacted landscape. Animal Behaviour, 186, 29-40.
Carvalho S, Wessling EG, Abwe EE, Almeida-Warren K, Arandjelovic M, Boesch C, Danquah E, Diallo MS, Hobaiter C, Hockings K, et al (2022). Using nonhuman culture in conservation requires careful and concerted action. CONSERVATION LETTERS, 15(2).  Author URL.
Bain M, Nagrani A, Schofield D, Berdugo S, Bessa J, Owen J, Hockings KJ, Matsuzawa T, Hayashi M, Biro D, et al (2021). Automated audiovisual behavior recognition in wild primates. Science Advances, 7(46). Abstract.
Bersacola E, Hill CM, Hockings KJ (2021). Chimpanzees balance resources and risk in an anthropogenic landscape of fear. Sci Rep, 11(1). Abstract.  Author URL.
Bersacola E, Parathian H, Frazão-Moreira A, Jaló M, Sanhá A, Regalla A, Saíd AR, Quecuta Q, Camará ST, Quade SMFF, et al (2021). Developing an Evidence-Based Coexistence Strategy to Promote Human and Wildlife Health in a Biodiverse Agroforest Landscape. Frontiers in Conservation Science, 2 Abstract.
Thurstan R, Hockings K, Hedlund J, Bersacola E, Collins C, Early R, Harrison M, Kaiser-Bunbury C, Nuno A, Van Veen F, et al (2021). Envisioning a resilient future for biodiversity conservation in the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic. People and Nature
Bessa J, Hockings K, Biro D (2021). First Evidence of Chimpanzee Extractive Tool Use in Cantanhez, Guinea-Bissau: Cross-Community Variation in Honey Dipping. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution, 9 Abstract.
Hockings KJ, Mubemba B, Avanzi C, Pleh K, Düx A, Bersacola E, Bessa J, Ramon M, Metzger S, Patrono LV, et al (2021). Leprosy in wild chimpanzees. Nature, 598(7882), 652-656. Abstract.
Heinicke S, Ordaz-Nemeth I, Junker J, Bachmann ME, Marrocoli S, Wessling EG, Byler D, Cheyne SM, Desmond J, Dowd D, et al (2021). Open-access platform to synthesize knowledge of ape conservation across sites. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PRIMATOLOGY, 83(1).  Author URL.
Andrasi B, Jaeger JAG, Heinicke S, Metcalfe K, Hockings KJ (2021). Quantifying the road‐effect zone for a critically endangered primate. Conservation Letters, 14(6). Abstract.
Hockings KJ, Parathian H, Bessa J, Frazão-Moreira A (2020). Extensive Overlap in the Selection of Wild Fruits by Chimpanzees and Humans: Implications for the Management of Complex Social-Ecological Systems. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution, 8 Abstract.
McLennan MR, Hintz B, Kiiza V, Rohen J, Lorenti GA, Hockings KJ (2020). Surviving at the extreme: Chimpanzee ranging is not restricted in a deforested human‐dominated landscape in Uganda. African Journal of Ecology, 59(1), 17-28. Abstract.
Vieira WF, Kerry C, Hockings KJ (2019). A comparison of methods to determine chimpanzee home-range size in a forest-farm mosaic at Madina in Cantanhez National Park, Guinea-Bissau. Primates, 60(4), 355-365. Abstract.  Author URL.
Gruber T, Luncz L, Mörchen J, Schuppli C, Kendal RL, Hockings K (2019). Cultural change in animals: a flexible behavioural adaptation to human disturbance. Palgrave Communications, 5(1). Abstract.
Gruber T, Luncz L, Mörchen J, Schuppli C, Kendal RL, Hockings K (2019). Cultural change in animals: a flexible behavioural adaptation to human disturbance (vol 5, 64, 2019). PALGRAVE COMMUNICATIONS, 5  Author URL.
Hockings KJ, McLennan MR (2019). Inclusive chimpanzee conservation. Science, 364(6445).
Heinicke S, Mundry R, Boesch C, Hockings KJ, Kormos R, Ndiaye PI, Tweh CG, Williamson EA, Kühl HS (2019). Towards systematic and evidence-based conservation planning for western chimpanzees. American Journal of Primatology, 81(9). Abstract.
Parathian H, McLennan MR, Hill CM, Frazao-Moreira A, Hockings KJ (2018). Breaking through disciplinary barriers: Human–wildlife interactions and multispecies ethnography. International Journal of Primatology
Parathian HE, Frazao-Moreira A, Hockings KJ (2018). Environmental psychology must better integrate local cultural and sociodemographic context to inform conservation. Conservation Letters
Bersacola E, Bessa J, Frazão-Moreira A, Biro D, Sousa C, Hockings KJ (2018). Primate occurrence across a human-impacted landscape in Guinea-Bissau and neighbouring regions in West Africa: using a systematic literature review to highlight the next conservation steps. PeerJ, 6, e4847-e4847.
Hockings KJ (2017). An Introduction to Primate Conservation. PRIMATES, 58(1), 259-260.  Author URL.
Hockings KJ, Yamakoshi G, Matsuzawa T (2017). Dispersal of a Human-Cultivated Crop by Wild Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) in a Forest–Farm Matrix. International Journal of Primatology, 38(2), 172-193. Abstract.
McLennan MR, Spagnoletti N, Hockings KJ (2017). The Implications of Primate Behavioral Flexibility for Sustainable Human–Primate Coexistence in Anthropogenic Habitats. International Journal of Primatology, 38(2), 105-121. Abstract.
Fernandes M, Frazão-Moreira A, Hockings KJ, Alves-Cardoso F (2016). Across disciplinary boundaries: Remembering cláudia sousa. Etnografica, 20(3), 633-640. Abstract.
Hockings KJ (2016). Chimpanzee behavioural flexibility and the sustainability of human-chimpanzee interactions at cantanhez national park, guinea-bissau. Etnografica, 20(3), 659-662. Abstract.
Fujisawa M, Hockings KJ, Soumah AG, Matsuzawa T (2016). Placentophagy in wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) at bossou, guinea. Primates, 57(2), 175-180. Abstract.
Cannon TH, Heistermann M, Hankison SJ, Hockings KJ, McLennan MR (2016). Tailored Enrichment Strategies and Stereotypic Behavior in Captive Individually Housed Macaques (Macaca spp.). Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science, 19(2), 171-182. Abstract.
Hockings KJ, McLennan MR, Carvalho S, Ancrenaz M, Bobe R, Byrne RW, Dunbar RIM, Matsuzawa T, McGrew WC, Williamson EA, et al (2015). Apes in the Anthropocene: Flexibility and survival. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 30(4), 215-222. Abstract.
Bessa J, Sousa C, Hockings KJ (2015). Feeding ecology of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) inhabiting a forest-mangrove-savanna-agricultural matrix at Caiquene-Cadique, Cantanhez National Park, Guinea-Bissau. American Journal of Primatology, 77(6), 651-665. Abstract.
Hockings KJ, Bryson-Morrison N, Carvalho S, Fujisawa M, Humle T, McGrew WC, Nakamura M, Ohashi G, Yamanashi Y, Yamakoshi G, et al (2015). Tools to tipple: Ethanol ingestion by wild chimpanzees using leaf-sponges. Royal Society Open Science, 2(6). Abstract.
Hockings KJ, McLennan MR, Hill C (2014). Fear beyond predators. Science, 344(6187).
McLennan MR, Hockings KJ (2014). Wild chimpanzees show group differences in selection of agricultural crops. Scientific Reports, 4 Abstract.
Hockings KJ, Sousa C (2013). Human-chimpanzee sympatry and interactions in Cantanhez National Park, guinea-bissau: Current research and future directions. Primate Conservation, 26(1), 57-65. Abstract.
Carvalho S, Biro D, Cunha E, Hockings K, McGrew WC, Richmond BG, Matsuzawa T (2012). Chimpanzee carrying behaviour and the origins of human bipedality. Current Biology, 22(6).
Hockings KJ, Humle T, Carvalho S, Matsuzawa T (2012). Chimpanzee interactions with nonhuman species in an anthropogenic habitat. Behaviour, 149(3-4), 299-324. Abstract.
Hockings KJ, Sousa C (2012). Differential utilization of cashew-a low-conflict crop-by sympatric humans and chimpanzees. ORYX, 46(3), 375-381. Abstract.
Hockings KJ, McLennan MR (2012). From forest to farm: Systematic review of cultivar feeding by chimpanzees - management implications for wildlife in anthropogenic landscapes. PLoS ONE, 7(4). Abstract.
Little AC, Hockings KJ, Apicella CL, Sousa C (2012). Mixed-ethnicity face shape and attractiveness in humans. Perception, 41(12), 1486-1496. Abstract.
Hockings KJ, Anderson JR, Matsuzawa T (2012). Socioecological adaptations by chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes verus, inhabiting an anthropogenically impacted habitat. Animal Behaviour, 83(3), 801-810. Abstract.
Hockings KJ, Yamakoshi G, Kabasawa A, Matsuzawa T (2010). Attacks on local persons by chimpanzees in Bossou, Republic of Guinea: Long-term perspectives. American Journal of Primatology, 72(10), 887-896. Abstract.
Hockings KJ, Anderson JR, Matsuzawa T (2010). Flexible feeding on cultivated underground storage organs by rainforest-dwelling chimpanzees at Bossou, West Africa. Journal of Human Evolution, 58(3), 227-233. Abstract.
Fuentes A, Hockings KJ (2010). The ethnoprimatological approach in primatology. American Journal of Primatology, 72(10), 841-847. Abstract.
Hockings KJ (2009). Living at the interface: Human-chimpanzee competition, coexistence and conflict in Africa. Interaction Studies, 10(2), 183-205. Abstract.
Hockings KJ, Anderson JR, Matsuzawa T (2009). Use of wild and cultivated foods by Chimpanzees at Bossou, Republic of Guinea: Feeding dynamics in a human-influenced environment. American Journal of Primatology, 71(8), 636-646. Abstract.
Hockings KJ, Humle T, Anderson JR, Biro D, Sousa C, Ohashi G, Matsuzawa T (2007). Chimpanzees share forbidden fruit. PLoS ONE, 2(9). Abstract.
Hockings KJ, Anderson JR, Matsuzawa T (2006). Road crossing in chimpanzees: a risky business. Current Biology, 16(17).


Ramon M, McLennan MR, Ruiz-Miranda CR, Kalema-Zikusoka G, Bessa J, Bersacola E, Sanhá A, Jaló M, Barros ARD, Leendertz FH, et al (2023). Infectious Diseases in Primates in Human-Impacted Landscapes. In  (Ed) Primates in Anthropogenic Landscapes, Springer Nature, 139-160.
Bersacola E, Hockings KJ, Harrison ME, Imron MA, Bessa J, Ramon M, Regalla de Barros A, Jaló M, Sanhá A, Ruiz-Miranda CR, et al (2023). Primate Conservation in Shared Landscapes. In  (Ed) Primates in Anthropogenic Landscapes, Springer Nature, 161-181.
(2020). Alcohol and Humans. In  (Ed) Alcohol and Humans, Oxford University Press (OUP), 196-206.
Hockings KJ, Ito M, Yamakoshi G (2020). The Importance of Raffia Palm Wine to Coexisting Humans and Chimpanzees. In  (Ed) Alcohol and Humans, Oxford University Press (OUP), 45-59.
(2020). The Puzzle of Alcohol Consumption. In  (Ed) Alcohol and Humans, Oxford University Press (OUP), 1-8.
Hockings KJ (2016). Mitigating Human–Nonhuman Primate Conflict. In  (Ed) The International Encyclopedia of Primatology, Wiley, 1-2.
Hockings KJ, McLennan MR (2016). Problematic primate behaviour in agricultural landscapes: Chimpanzees as ‘pests’ and ‘predators’. In Waller M (Ed) Ethnoprimatology: Primate Conservation in the 21st Century, Switzerland: Springer, 137-156.
McLennan MR, Hockings KJ (2015). The aggressive apes? Causes and contexts of great ape attacks on local persons. In  (Ed) Problematic Wildlife: a Cross-Disciplinary Approach, 373-394. Abstract.
Hockings KJ (2011). Behavioural flexibility and division of roles in chimpanzee road-crossing. In Matsuzawa T, Humle T, Sugiyama Y (Eds.) The chimpanzees of Bossou and Nimba, Tokyo: Springer-Verlag, 221-229.
Hockings KJ (2011). The crop-raiders of the sacred hill. In Matsuzawa T, Humle T, Sugiyama Y (Eds.) The chimpanzees of Bossou and Nimba, Tokyo: Springer-Verlag, 211-220.
Hockings KJ (2010). Human-chimpanzee competition and conflict in Africa: a case study of coexistence in Bossou, Republic of Guinea. In Lonsdorf E, Ross S, Matsuzawa T (Eds.) The Mind of the Chimpanzee: Ecological and Experimental Perspectives, Chicago and London: the University of Chicago Press, 347-360.


Bessa J, Hockings K, Biro D (2020). Chimpanzee Cultural Behaviour in the Anthropogenic Landscape of Guinea-Bissau.  Author URL.
Hockings KJ, Bersacola H, Bessa J, Minhos T, Ramon M, Parathian H, Frazao-Moreira A (2020). Developing an Evidence-Based Conservation Strategy for Cantanhez National Park, Guinea-Bissau.  Author URL.
Oxley A, McLennan M, Hockings K, Hill C (2017). Chimpanzee Crop-Foraging Preferences and Perception of Risk in a Human-Dominated Landscape, Uganda.  Author URL.
Hockings K, Carvalho S (2017). Primate Behavioural Flexibility in the Anthropocene.  Author URL.
Ramon M, Llana M, Estela N, Pacheco L, Hockings K, Hill C (2017). The Fruit of Discord? Saba senegalensis Use by Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) and Local People in the Dindefelo Community Nature Reserve (RNCD), Southeastern Senegal.  Author URL.


Catarino L, Frazão-Moreira A, Bessa J, Parathian H, Hockings K (2020). FIELD GUIDE - PLANTS USED BY CHIMPANZEES AND HUMANS IN CANTANHEZ, GUINEA-BISSAU., LAE/CRIA Environmental Anthropology and Behavioural Ecology Laboratory Centre for Research in Anthropology.
Catarino L, Frazão-Moreira A, Bessa J, Parathian H, Hockings K (2020). GUIA DE CAMPO - PLANTAS USADAS POR CHIMPANZÉS E HUMANOS NO CANTANHEZ, GUINÉ-BISSAU., LAE/CRIA Laboratório de Antropologia ambiental e Ecologia comportamental Centro em Rede de Investigação em Antropologia.
Hockings KJ, Humle T (2009). Best practice guidelines for the prevention and mitigation of conflict between humans and great apes. Gland, Switzerland, IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group.

Back to top

External Engagement and Impact

Committee/panel activities

Membership of Academic Boards and Committees

IUCN Western Chimpanzee Action Plan (WCAP) Implementation Committee. Guinea Bissau co-representative with Aissa Regalla (2021-2024); Human-wildlife Conflict and Coexistence co-chair (since 2024).

IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group – Section on Great Apes (since 2008); Section on Human-Primate Interactions (2019); Chimpanzee Culture and Conservation working group (2020); COVID-19 working group (2020)

Expert Working Group on Culture and Social Complexity of the Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals (CMS) Scientific Council (since 2020)

Conservation Working Party, Primate Society of Great Britain (2013-2022)

Primatology & Wildlife Science Graduate Program, Kyoto University (International Collaborator, since 2010)

Conferences and invited presentations

Selected Recent Invited Presentations

2023  Department of Anthropology, UCL, and ZSL, London, UK. Invited speaker and panel member.

2023  Faculty of Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences, University of Exeter. Invited speaker and panel member, Anthrozoological lens: multispecies ethnography.

2021  Ministry of Health, Guinea-Bissau. Invited presentation on ‘Leprosy in Chimpanzees’

2021  Centre for Wildlife Studies, Wildlife Chronicles Webinar, India. Human-primate interactions.

2020  Department of Anthropology University of Oxford. Primate Conversations.

2019  University of Exeter alumni event Royal Society, London. Rainforests.

2015  Department of Evolutionary Anthropology, University of Roehampton, UK.CRESIDA series.

2014  JSPS Core-to-Core Program Symposium “Ecology & Conservation of Great Ape Populations”, Uganda

2014  Department of Evolutionary Anthropology, Max Planck Institute, Germany.

2014  Department of Archaeology and Anthropology (Bio Anth seminar series), University of Cambridge, UK.

2014  Wildlife Research Centre, Kyoto University, Japan

2014  Department of Social Sciences (Primate Conservation seminar series), Oxford Brookes University, UK.

2014  Biological Anthropology, School of Anthropology & Conservation, University of Kent, UK.

2013  Anthropological Institute & Museum, University of Zurich, Switzerland.

Selected Refereed Presentations at Scientific Meetings

1. Hockings KJ, Bersacola E. 2023. A One Health approach to promote sustainable coexistence between humans and primates in Cantanhez National Park, Guinea-Bissau. Invited paper for the Primate Society of Great Britain, Cambridge.

2. Hockings KJ, Bersacola H, Bessa J, Minhos T, Ramon M, Parathian H, Frazao-Moreira A. 2019. Developing an evidence-based conservation strategy for Cantanhez National Park, Guinea-Bissau. Invited paper for the Congress of the European Federation for Primatology, Oxford.

3. Hockings KJ 2017. Wild chimpanzees use tools to drink ethanol. Invited paper presented at the American Association for Physical Anthropology, New Orleans, USA.

4. Hockings KJ. 2015. The chimpanzees of Caiquene-Cadique, Guinea-Bissau: feeding behaviour & resource competition with local people. Paper presented at the IV International Symposium on Primatology & Wildlife Science, Kyoto, Japan.

5. Hockings KJ. 2014. Cocoa-spread by wild chimpanzees: do chimpanzees cultivate their own gardens? Invited paper presented at the XXV Congress of the International Primatological Society, Vietnam.

6. Hockings KJ, McLennan M. 2013. Cultivar feeding by chimpanzees: community variation to conflict mitigation. Paper presented at the V Congress of the European Federation for Primatology, Antwerp, Belgium. 

7. Hockings KJ. 2011. Differential utilisation of cashew by sympatric humans and chimpanzees. Paper presented at the IV Congress of the European Federation for Primatology, Almada, Portugal.

8. Hockings KJ. 2010. Fission-fusion dynamics in chimpanzees at Bossou: ecological constraints in an anthropogenic environment. Paper presented at the XXIII Congress of the International Primatological Society, Kyoto, Japan.

9. Hockings KJ. 2009. Living at the interface: human-chimpanzee competition, coexistence and conflict in Africa. Paper presented at the Congress of Portuguese Anthropology Association, Lisbon, Portugal.

10. Hockings KJ. 2007. Chimpanzees share the forbidden fruit. Invited paper presented in the Primate Society of Great Britain conference, Durham, England. * Honorary mention*

Conference, Symposium, and Workshop organisation

2023  Workshop participant: “One Health, a holistic approach to conflicts driven by zoonoses”. International Conference on Human-Wildlife Conflict and Coexistence. Oxford.

2021  Workshop organiser: “Protect great apes from disease” for IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group Section on Great Apes and COVID-19 working group.

2018  Conference co-organiser: “Humans and alcohol: A long and social affair”, British Academy, London.

2016  Workshop organiser: “Working with local people for the conservation of chimpanzees in Guinea-Bissau”, Guinea-Bissau.

2015  Conference co-organiser: “Chimpanzees, People & Nature: The Legacy of Claudia Sousa”, Lisbon, Portugal.

2015  Symposium co-organiser: “Behavioural flexibility by primates in anthropogenic habitats”, VI European Federation for Primatology, Rome, Italy.

2014  Workshop organiser: “Chimpanzee Conservation in Guinea-Bissau”, Lisbon, Portugal.

2011  Conference co-organiser: IV European Federation for Primatology, Portugal.

2010  Symposium co-organiser: “How nonhuman great apes respond to anthropogenic contexts”, XXIII Congress of the International Primatological Society, Japan.

2010  Conference co-organiser: HOPE-GM Primate Mind and Society, Japan.


Grant bodies: ARCUS Foundation; Leakey Foundation; Marie Skłodowska-Curie Actions; National Geographic; Primate Conservation Inc.; Primate Society of Great Britain: Conservation Working Party; Rufford Grants for Nature Conservation, UK Research & Innovation (UKRI).

Journals: African Journal of Ecology; American Journal of Physical Anthropology; American Journal of Primatology; Animal Cognition; Behaviour; Behavioural Ecology; Behavioural Ecology and Sociobiology; Biological Conservation; Current Biology; Critique of Anthropology; Environmental Management; Folia Primatologica; GECCO; Human Ethology Bulletin; International Journal of Primatology; Journal of Applied Ecology; Oryx; PLoS ONE; Primates; Scientific Reports; Society and Natural Resources; Tropical Conservation Science.

Back to top

Supervision / Group

Postdoctoral researchers

  • Elena Bersacola Darwin POstdoctoral Research Fellow

Postgraduate researchers


  • Olivia Bell MSci (co-supervised with H Morrogh-Bernard) 2019 – "Orangutan vocalisations".
  • Joana Bessa PhD (co-supervised with D Biro, Oxford University) 2016 - ongoing. “Chimpanzee material culture in Cantanhez and Dulombi National Parks, Guinea-Bissau”
  • Aimee Oxley PhD completed (supervision with C Hill, M McLennan, Oxford Brookes University). 2014 – 2019. "Living in the matrix: Investigating the effects of human encroachment on the socioecological adaptations of chimpanzees in a forest-farm mosaic, Uganda.
  • Tanya Payne MbyRes (co-supervised with T Minhos and M Cant) 2018 – 2020 "Human-wildlife coexistence at Gola Rainforest National Park, Sierra Leone"

Back to top

Office Hours:

For BIO3426 students, my office hours are Tuesday 1-2pm (in person outside the Exchange Green lecture theatre) and Tuesday 2-3pm (online).

For Conservation and Biodiversity MSc students, my office hours are Tuesday 9-10am and Tuesday 2-3pm (please email to book a meeting) .

Back to top

Edit Profile